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the_theories_of_ageing [2020/06/15 04:51]
the_theories_of_ageing [2020/06/15 04:57] (current)
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   - Free radicals theory, which proposes that superoxide and other free radicals cause damage to the macromolecular components of the cell, giving rise to accumulated damage causing cells, and eventually organs, to stop functioning.   - Free radicals theory, which proposes that superoxide and other free radicals cause damage to the macromolecular components of the cell, giving rise to accumulated damage causing cells, and eventually organs, to stop functioning.
-----+===== Other Theories ===== 
 +==== Disengagement Theory ==== 
 +  ​Refers to an inevitable process in which many of the relationships between a person and other members of society are severed & those remaining are altered in quality. 
 +  ​Withdrawal may be initiated by the ageing person or by society, and may be partial or total. 
 +  ​It was observed that older people are less involved with life than they were as younger adults. 
 +  ​As people age they experience greater distance from society & they develop new types of relationships with society. 
 +  - In America there is evidence that society forces withdrawal on older people whether they want it. 
 +  - Some suggest that this theory does not consider the large number of older people who do not withdraw from society. 
 +  - This theory is recognized as the first formal theory that attempted to explain the process of growing older. 
 +==== Activity Theory ==== 
 +  - Is another theory that describes the psychosocial ageing process. 
 +  - Activity theory emphasizes the importance of ongoing social activity. 
 +  - This theory suggests that a person'​s self-concept is related to the roles held by that person i.e. retiring may not be so harmful if the person actively maintains other roles, such as familial roles, recreational roles, volunteer & community roles. 
 +  - To maintain a positive sense of self the person must substitute new roles for those that are lost because of age. And studies show that the type of activity does matter, just as it does with younger people. 
 +==== The Neuroendocrine Theory ==== 
 +  - First proposed by Professor Vladimir Dilman and Ward Dean MD, this theory elaborates on wear and tear by focusing on the neuroendocrine system. 
 +  - This system is a complicated network of biochemicals that govern the release of hormones which are altered by the walnut sized gland called the hypothalamus located in the brain. 
 +  - The hypothalamus controls various chain-reactions to instruct other organs and glands to release their hormones etc. The hypothalamus also responds to the body hormone levels as a guide to the overall hormonal activity. But as we grow older the hypothalamus loses it precision regulatory ability and the receptors which uptake individual hormones become less sensitive to them. Accordingly,​ as we age the secretion of many hormones declines and their effectiveness (compared unit to unit) is also reduced due to the receptors down-grading  
 +==== The Free Radical Theory ==== 
 +  - This now very famous theory of ageing was developed by Denham Harman MD at the University of Nebraska in 1956. The term free radical describes any molecule that has a free electron, and this property makes it react with healthy molecules in a destructive way. 
 +  - Because the free radical molecule has an extra electron it creates an extra negative charge. This unbalanced energy makes the free radical bind itself to another balanced molecule as it tries to steal electrons. In so doing, the balanced molecule becomes unbalanced and thus a free radical itself. 
 +  - It is known that diet, lifestyle, drugs (e.g. tobacco and alcohol) and radiation etc., are all accelerators of free radical production within the body. 
 +==== The Membrane Theory of Ageing ==== 
 +  - The membrane theory of ageing was first described[12] by Professor Imre Zs.-Nagy of Debrechen University, Hungary. According to this theory it is the age-related changes of the cell's ability to transfer chemicals, heat and electrical processes that impair it. 
 +  - As we grow older the cell membrane becomes less lipid (less watery and more solid). This impedes its efficiency to conduct normal function and in particular there is a toxic accumulation  
 +==== The Mitochondrial Decline Theory ==== 
 +  - The mitochondria are the power producing organelles found in every cell of every organ. Their primary job is to create Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) and they do so in the various energy cycles that involve nutrients such as Acetyl-L-Carnitine,​ CoQ10 (Idebenone),​ NADH and some B vitamins etc. 
 +  - Enhancement and protection of the mitochondria is an essential part of preventing and slowing ageing. Enhancement can be achieved with the above mention nutrients, as well as ATP supplements themselves 
 +==== The Cross-Linking Theory ==== 
 +  - The Cross-Linking Theory of Ageing is also referred to as the Glycosylation Theory of Ageing. In this theory it is the binding of glucose (simple sugars) to protein, (a process that occurs under the presence of oxygen) that causes various problems. 
 +  - Once this binding has occurred the protein becomes impaired and is unable to perform as efficiently. Living a longer life is going to lead to the increased possibility of oxygen meeting glucose and protein and known cross-linking disorders include senile cataract and the appearance of tough, leathery and yellow skin.
the_theories_of_ageing.txt · Last modified: 2020/06/15 04:57 by admin